Edict Naming Liu Jui-fên as the Ambassador to France, Italy, and Belgium
Item No. : 038296
In the Ch’ing dynasty, edicts (ch’ih-shu) were used to appoint officials to posts outside of the capital. In 1885, Liu Jui-fên was appointed as the ambassador to Russia and Great Britain. Two years later, he was re-assigned as ambassador to France, Italy, and Belgium. Liu protested against the mining of gold by Russia in Mo-ho and maintained alliances with Burma and Korea as tributary states in order to strengthen the boarder regions of the Ch’ing dynasty.