Patent by Ordinance to Grant Paoliang the Title of Feng-en chiang-chün or
Item No. : 105577
A.D.1710, Ch'ing dynasty
Height 36.5, width 331.7cm
In the Ch’ing dynasty, the “patent by ordinance”(kao-ming) was bestowed by the Emperor or obtained through inheritance with no limitation on generation of inheritance. It conferred titles of honor on officials of the fifth rank or higher. The title of Feng-en chiang-chün was conferred to officers of the fourth rank.