Routine Memorial (t’i-pên)A memorial from the Board of War, reporting the result of an investigation requested by the
Item No. : 011681
As in the Ming, central and local officials in the Ch'ing used the t'i-pen to submit reports concerning administrative activities. Attached at the end of most t'i-pen was a slip of paper, called t'ieh-huang, which summarized the contents. Each t'i-pen was presented to the emperor for "endorsement" (p'i-hung) with one or several proposals (p'iao-ni) written on a slip or several slips of paper for imperial selection.