In 1928, Wu Chin-ting, one of the research fellows of the Institute, first discovered the remains of the Lung-shan culture in Cheng-tze-yai, at the town Lung-shan, Shantung. Later in 1934, lead by Li Chi, other researchers of the Institute found more remains of the Lung-shan culture along the eastern coastline of Shantung Province. The next year, test excavations were carried out at the Wa-wu-ts'un and Ta-ku-tui sites in Liang-ch'eng-chen. These excavations established the foundation for the study of Lung-shan culture. 

Nowadays, Lung-shan culture is still conventionally divided into the “Ch’eng-tze-yai type” and the “Liang-ch’eng-chen type;” the former spread alongside ancient swamps of the northwestern Shantung Peninsula, and the latter throughout the southeast of the Peninsula. The fellows of the Institute found the items exhibited, in the remains of Lung-shan culture, from 1928 to 1935.