In the Qing dynasty, command edicts (chishu) were used to appoint officials to posts outside of the capital. In 1885, Liu Ruifen was appointed as the ambassador to Russia and Great Britain. Two years later, he was re-assigned as ambassador to France, Italy, and Belgium. Liu protested against the mining of gold by Russia in Mohe and maintained alliances with Burma and Joseon (Korea) as tributary states in order to strengthen the border regions of the Qing dynasty.
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- A.D.1887, Qing dynasty